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The Lord's Supper

Synopsis: our celebration of the Lord's Supper is an element of a greater fulfillment of the figural Passover. Israel on the 14th day of Nisan each year celebrated a supper commemorating their departure from Egypt; believers in Christ today - all who repent in his name, accepting the antitypical circumcision and thus leaving Egypt of this world - also once a year, at the same time, celebrate the supper commemorating the death of the antitypical Paschal lamb, Jesus Christ, according to the pattern he shows, by eating unleavened bread and wine. By eating bread and wine, believers (elect and non-elect) show they accept the teachings of Jesus Christ and confirm the experience of repentance. In addition, the chosen nation of Israel, consuming Passover, represents the elect under the New Covenant, who through repentance experience the new birth of the spirit through the action of God's love of truth and thus have their share in the sacrifice for the truth (wine), while developing character through its learning and application (bread).


  1. "This is my body ... This is my blood"
  2. A way to celebrate Passover
  3. Who eats the Lord's Supper?
  4. Lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs
  5. Why did Israel celebrate Passover?
  6. When should the Lord's Supper be celebrated?

The purpose of the lecture marked in the title is to discuss the Lord's Supper, and especially who, when and why can eat it. The way it is handled does not arouse particular controversy. According to the account of the evangelist Matthew, "as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed [it], and brake [it], and gave [it] to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave [it] to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins" (Mt. 26:26-28 OGIB). Apart from this description, virtually nothing seems to be agreed on anymore: the time of the celebration, who can receive the supper, the significance of bread and wine received, or even the way they are consumed - it is common knowledge that in the common church during everyday Mass the faithful accept only bread, excluding wine.

In the case of the practice of skipping wine, it is difficult to find a Biblical argument - the text of the Gospel, and not only by Matthew, but also by Mark and Lucas, is clear in this regard. Of course, one can refer to all sorts of "practical considerations" and obligatorily, to the practice sanctified by the tradition of the Holy Church, but the reason guided by the spirit of dedication to the Word of God will be able to take an unequivocal position towards this tradition.

"This is my body ... This is my blood"

A great controversy is also related to our Lord's words: "this is my body ... this is my blood". A number of churches, understanding literally and directly spoken words, teach the doctrine of transubstantiation - as if the bread and wine become the real body and blood of Jesus Christ. Interestingly enough, the evangelists do not agree on what our Lord actually said. Matthew presents the case in the manner mentioned above, as does Mark (Mk. 14:22,23). Lucas, however, only agrees about the bread; of wine he says that "This cup [is] the new testament in my blood" (Lk. 22:20 OGIB). This significantly complicates the case for transubstantiation because wine is a substance, as is blood (even conceived in an indefinite, spiritual way); the covenant is not a substance but a contract. While the statement that wine is transformed into blood can be accepted on the basis of faith in God's supernatural action, the transformation of wine into a contract is nonsense.

Of course, from the exegetical point of view there is no contradiction between the statement that the cup is blood or the new covenant in the blood - this is the same information, only expressed differently. It will not be an exaggeration to say that Lucas in his report de facto explains what Matthew and Mark represent in a more symbolic way. All the more so, if participation in the blood of Christ means participation in the New Covenant through that blood guaranteed, the teaching of transubstantiation appears to have no basis.

However, the question remains what our Lord actually said, giving the disciples the cup at supper. The answer to this question is given by the apostle Paul, who in 1 Cor. 11:23-25 ​​describes the events of that night: "the Lord Jesus the [same] night in which he was betrayed took bread: And when he had given thanks, he brake [it], and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also [he took] the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink [it], in remembrance of me" (OGIB). Paul's testimony is decisive because his knowledge on this subject does not come from other supper participants, but directly from the Lord Jesus. He himself says: "For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you" (1 Cor. 11:23 OGIB). However, it must be emphasized once again: this does not mean that Matthew and Mark have written untruths. Further analysis contained in the lecture aims to show that the meaning of Jesus' words about the cup, regardless of the form, remains unchanged. Their form, however, is another argument unfavorable for all who would like to eat the transformed body and blood of Christ.

So what the consumption of bread and wine means the apostle also explains in the same pericope: "For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. 26" (1 Cor. 11:26 OGIB). We do not eat and drink Christ's body and blood in any substantial sense, but 'we show the Lord's death'. Our goal is, therefore, to commemorate the Savior's death, of which he also says: "this do in remembrance of me" (1 Cor. 11:24,25 OGIB). The Greek anamnesis occurring here literally means 'reminder'. In this sense, everyone who believes in Jesus Christ and repents in his name consumes commemorative bread and wine. But this does not exhaust the symbolism yet. In 1 Cor. 10:16,17 we read that "The cup of blessing which we bless [is] the communion of the blood of Christ" and similarly "The bread which we break [is] the communion of the body of Christ" (OGIB).

The symbolism of communion which Paul writes about opens the aspect of the Lord's Supper completely separate from the aspect of commemorating our Lord's death; separate in the sense that although the consumption of bread and wine as a communion of the Lord's body and blood will always be linked to the aspect of commemorating his death, not everyone who receives the supper has a share in the body and blood of Christ in the full sense. This conclusion finds strong support in the analysis of the type of the Lord's Supper, i.e. in the Paschal Supper, but before this thread is further developed, one must first look at how this typical supper was celebrated.

A way to celebrate Passover

A description of the supper is found in Ex. 12:1-13, 21-28, 43-51, and while there is no need to quote the entire text, there are a few things to note:

who consumed the Passover - above all God's chosen people Israel, i.e. all circumcised descendants of Abraham. A foreigner who was among Israel and wanted to celebrate the Passover also had to be circumcised;

what was eaten - on the Easter night Israel ate the lamb, which was baked whole, along with unleavened bread and bitter herbs;

why Israel celebrated the Passover - the Passover was celebrated on the night of the Exodus from Egypt and as such became a feast of departure for the nation, which was to be celebrated in the future to commemorate Israel's deliverance from captivity by God. Passover was of special importance to the first-born of Israel because on that night the angel of the Lord killed all the first-born in Egypt who would not eat Passover in houses marked with blood on the door frame. In this way Israel's firstborn who ate the supper according to the Lord's order saved their lives;

when the Passover is celebrated - the first supper was eaten on the night of departure from Egypt, on the 14th day of the month of Nisan. Each subsequent one was to be celebrated as the anniversary of this event on the same day as the original - Nisan 14.

These four elements - who, what, why and when - are key to understanding the manner and meaning of our celebration of the Lord's Supper.

Who eats the Lord's Supper?

The basic condition for admission to the paschal supper was not origin. Of course, the entire nation of Israel was to have a share in the consumption of the lamb, but so could foreigners. The condition, however, was to undergo circumcision. Every foreigner who wanted to eat Passover also had to undergo circumcision, just as every male descendant of Abraham was circumcised. This is important information from the point of view of the antitype because circumcision of the body has its counterpart in circumcision of the heart. In Rom. 2:25-29, the apostle Paul argues that "he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither [is that] circumcision, which is outward in the flesh: But he [is] a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision [is that] of the heart, in the spirit, [and] not in the letter" (OGIB). Real circumcision is therefore the attitude of the heart of one who observes the law of God's justice, who acts "in the spirit, [and] not in the letter", solely seeking the external signs of his covenant with God. Therefore, "circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision" (OGIB; cf. Jer. 4:4; Phil. 3:3).

It is not without significance, however, that God lists two groups of circumcised Passover participants: Israelites and foreigners. Israel was God's chosen people; the foreigner was not chosen but showed readiness to live in accordance with God's law. This divine arrangement described in Ex. 12:43-51 clearly shows who participates in the antitypical supper - all who by repentance circumcised their hearts to hear the Word of God. Nevertheless, here we have two groups of participants: the elect (spiritual Israel) and non-elect (antitypical foreigners). We live in a time when God "commandeth all men everywhere to repent" (Acts 17:30 OGIB; 2 Cor. 5:20). All who repent and convert to God thus submit their hearts to symbolic circumcision. However, not everyone by taking the above mentioned steps receive the spirit of the new birth, but only those who were chosen for this purpose (John 3:3-8; 2 Cor. 5:17; Eph. 1:3-6, 2:1-7).

An excellent illustration of this teaching is the parable of the wedding feast recorded in . The feast to which the king invites represents participation in the spiritual phase of God's Kingdom (cf. Lk. 22:16; Jn. 14:2,3). First, the Jewish people received their invitation, but in the absence of their interest, the king sent servants to bring anyone they could find. It happened, but not everyone was admitted to the feast because only the chosen ones received the royal robe. The non-elect, despite their hopes and aspirations, had to remain outside. Therefore, we have anti-typical Israelites, i.e. the elect who hope to receive the highest positions in the Kingdom, as well as anti-typical foreigners who also participate in the paschal supper, but for whom God did not foresee royal clothing. Despite some differences in the positions of both groups towards God, their common feature is the antitypical circumcision - repentance of sins and practice of justice "in the spirit" manifested in the Word of God.

Lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs

The identification of the Passover with the Lord's Supper is perhaps the most visible in the element of identification of the Paschal lamb. The lamb was the focal point of the supper. According to the law, a one-year-old healthy lamb was detached from the herd on the 10th of Nisan and guarded until Nisan the 14th. By evening of the day the lamb was killed and roasted on fire whole, and then eaten whole with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. Whatever was left of the lamb until morning was to be burned. The entrance door was anointed with the blood of the killed lamb so that the firstborn of this house would not be destroyed. The whole family ate supper in the house marked in this way, in full readiness to leave Egypt.

The New Testament teaches directly that the typical lamb represents our Lord Jesus - "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world" (Jn. 1:29 OGIB; 1 Cor. 5:7; 1 Pet. 1:19; Rev. 5:6). The choice of the lamb on the 10th of Nisan indicates the day of the Lord's entry into Jerusalem, when he was proclaimed king of Israel (Jn. 12:12,13). Then for four days the lamb was 'guarded' - watched if it really was a flawless lamb, which the law spoke of, and similarly our Lord for 4 days that divided the entry to Jerusalem from Passover, was also under the observation of scribes, who "sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death" (Mt. 26:59 OGIB). On Nisan 14th, the lamb was killed and similarly the Lord Jesus died on the same day (in Israel the day begins after sunset).

The entire nation that left Egypt consumed the lamb, and likewise all those who leave the spiritual darkness of this world must also eat it. Our Lord apparently refers to the type when he says "this is my body". However, in order to answer the question of how we eat it, one element has to be strongly emphasized, namely, we eat what really was meant by our Lord's sacrifice. If the essence of his sacrifice were to give the body in the literal sense, probably our consumption would be something like consuming a wafer transformed in the process of transubstantiation into the Body of Christ. Similarly, if the essence of this sacrifice were to sacrifice life, we would receive God's energy, life force or life laws sacrificed by Jesus during supper. In this way, however, we make the worship of Christ no less and no more than the next incarnation of the religion of nature. This is what redemption in ancient pagan cults consists in - imputing such a philosophy to the teachings of the Bible exposes Christianity as only a more modern form of Mithraism and it is really difficult to argue with such a contention.

The redemption that the Bible teaches, however, has nothing to do with Mithraism or any other cult of nature because the Biblical philosophy of redemption is not based on a transactional model. The transaction model presents redemption as a kind of transaction - Adam lost his life, Jesus gives his life; Adam lost his body, Jesus sacrifices his body. Meanwhile, the equivalence of the price our Lord paid is the equivalence of obedience (Rom. 5:18, 19), and its essence is to give testimony to the truth (Jn. 18:37). The human body of Jesus Christ was a tool to accomplish this mission - a tool to deliver the sacrifice - but not its essence. There is no place in this lecture for detailed justification of this position - interested readers will find more information in a lecture on . However, it is necessary to emphasize here what the content of the redemption provided by Jesus Christ is - it is a model of perfect obedience to God based on truth and patient bearing of experiences.

And this is how we eat our Lamb - if we imitate this perfect example of obedience to God which he left us, following in the footsteps of his sacrifice. This was also typically shown in the consumption of the Paschal Supper. Consuming the lamb here presents our consumption of the merits of Jesus Christ by developing character in the image of his character in the knowlege of the truth and its practice. The fact that the lamb was eaten whole indicates that our acquisition of the pattern left by Jesus must be complete. The preparation of the lamb is also important. God not only stated that it was to be baked, but also added a categorical ban on eating cooked and raw meat. All these elements seem to be of importance in the antitype. Fire is associated with experience in the Bible - baking a lamb means that our Lord has been thoroughly tested in the fire of trial (Heb. 5:7-9).

However, these experiences did not affect him in the way, which is illustrated by cooked meat and raw meat. Cooking meat deprives it of some nutrients - eating cooked meat therefore seems to depict those who believe that Jesus Christ was in fact a sinful man - outstanding, but still subject to sin. On the other hand, there are those who believe that Jesus Christ in his earthly existence was in fact God in spiritual nature and as such was not experienced and suffered as our sacrifice, i.e. in the antitypical sense he remained 'raw'. None of these views, however, have value in terms of our justification; only Jesus Christ - a man subjected to experiences who victoriously overcame them in full obedience to God can be a model for those who imitate him.

Another view put forward by some lukewarm Christians maintains that the pattern of Jesus Christ is not necessary at all. After all, one can become a good and mature man by listening to the teachings of extra-biblical philosophies, and especially the philosophy of the East, which has recently gained popularity in Christian countries, such as Yoga or Zen. However, God's word is unequivocal here - "Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved" (Acts 4:12 OGIB). The same thought is shown in the image of the Passover in the ordinance regarding the place of consumption, namely the lamb was to be eaten behind the door, inside the household. The door, on the other hand, represents faith in Jesus Christ (Jn. 10:7-9). Therefore, there is no way to develop a perfect, pleasing to God character without accepting Jesus as the one who is only the right, perfect model.

Building character in the image of Jesus Christ must include two basic elements, i.e. learning his teachings and participating in his experiences. These two things seem to be shown in the additions that were consumed with the lamb, i.e. unleavened bread and bitter herbs. The bitterness of herbs seems to indicate the bitter experience of those who receive Jesus Christ. Bread, on the other hand, represents teaching - just as literal bread is the food of the body, bread of the Word of God is the food of the spirit (Mt. 4:4; Deut. 8:3; Jn. 4:34; Heb. 5:11-14). The type had to be bread without leaven and similarly in the antitype - only healthy, unleavened biblical teaching can be the basis of our spiritual development. Feeding a mistake in doctrine must translate into a mistake in practice, and here the consequences can indeed be significant (Mt. 7:21-23). It is worth mentioning that in the type "whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel" (Ex. 12:15 OGIB).

Why did Israel celebrate Passover?

The body and blood of the lamb used on behalf of all circumcised Passover participants

When analyzing the type and antitype of the Easter supper, it is worth taking as a starting point the principle given by the apostle Paul in 1 Cor. 10:18, namely "they which eat of the sacrifices [are] partakers of the altar" (OGIB). In this way, the Jew killing a lamb symbolized his own death for the life in Egypt; by consuming it, one showed accepting God's leadership on the way to the promised land. Similarly in the antitype. Egypt is in the Scriptures a symbol of the present world subjected to the power of God's opponent (cf. Rev. 11:8). Hosts of those eating the antitypical Lamb leave Egypt of this world not physically but spiritually, rejecting its philosophy and aspirations. However, in order to leave antitypical Egypt, two things are necessary: 1) killing our bodies because of sin in repentance symbolized by the blood of the lamb, and 2) conversion - changing our character into the image of our Lord symbolized by the body of the lamb.

Accepting the body of the lamb in the antitype, we accept the lessons of obedience to God given by the Lord Jesus. By offering our bodies to God for justice, we accept his consecration as a pattern to follow (Heb. 10:5-7). These two elements are inseparable, just as repentance (Greek: metanoia) and conversion (Greek: epistrefo) are inseparable. We associate repentance primarily with giving up sin, but in the basic sense Greek metanoia means 'change of mind' - reorientation of goals from bodily to spiritual. The body ceases to be the object for which we live and becomes an instrument in God's service. Giving up sin is a natural consequence of this change in thinking (Rom. 6:11-14, 8:5-8; Gal. 2:20, 5:19-21). In turn, through repentance, we make room for conversion in our hearts - we remove sin to accept the teaching of God's Word and develop good character traits. In this way, everyone eats the lamb behind the door marked with blood - both the firstborn and the others, Israel and foreigners, whoever accepted the sign of circumcision. In this sense, all who believe in Christ and repent in his name perform symbolic circumcision - symbolic 'shedding of the body' so that they are no longer subject to desires against the principles of God's Word (Phil. 3:3).

The blood on the doorposts of the houses of the sons of Israel is therefore a sign to the angel of death that the inhabitants of the household made the required sacrifice. But not just a sign of sacrifice. The Easter night was not only the night of Exodus from Egypt, but also the night of Israel's entering into a covenant relationship with God. It is important to know that although the Law was given at Sinai during the journey, the actual covenant of God with Israel was made on the night of the Exodus (Jer. 31:32, 34:13). And just as the blood of the lamb was a visible sign of participation in the covenant, so the wine drunk during the Lord's Supper is also a visible sign that its participants are in a covenant relationship with God - in the New Covenant (Heb. 8:7-13, 9:15-28).

There is a direct relationship between the body sacrifice and the covenant because everyone who makes their body a sacrifice for righteousness thus enters a covenant with God (Ps. 50:5). The essence of this covenant is repentance and following God's principles (cf. Ps. 50:14-23). By drinking from the cup, which is the New Covenant, we show - regardless of whether we belong to the elect or non-elect - that we have entered such a covenant. It is also the New Covenant in our Lord's blood because through his martyrdom and patient endurance of the hardest trials, he provided the price of our salvation - the price of obedience (Rom. 5:18,19). When making our covenant with God, we acquire the pattern of obedience provided by the Lord and thus eat the antitypical lamb even if we are not the firstborn.

The body and blood of the lamb used on behalf of the elect

The description of the Passover participants allows to identify three groups: 1) foreigners (non-elect), 2) the Israeli nation (elect) and 3) the first-born (some of the elect who consumed the Passover under the sanction of losing their lives). Foreigners, as outlined above, represent believers whose obligatory love for God (piety) leads to the abandonment of sin by repentance and conversion to God through Jesus Christ. Their consumption of the lamb behind the door marked with blood represents these experiences of faith. In this sense, the Passover is also consumed by the elect (groups 2 and 3). Nevertheless, there is an element here that is not found in the case of the non-elect (foreigners), i.e. if the non-elect have a sense of duty towards God in their faith, the elect receive from God the spirit of agape, which leads them to offer themselves as a living sacrifice for the truth.

The spirit that led our Lord in his earthly ministry was the spirit of ministering to the truth, the spirit of testimony, showing Israel the way to the Kingdom by knowing God (Jn. 17:3, 18:37). The same work is done by the elect, who through baptism receive the same spirit of service in the element of evangelization, teaching and prophecy (2 Cor. 5:14-15, 18-20; Eph. 4:11-14). Baptism in the spirit in the element of consecration and birth of the spirit is an experience parallel to repentance and conversion, but involving the mentioned factor of service to the Word of God. And so repentance is a sacrifice of the body for the practice of justice - consecration means sacrifice of the body for the service of the Gospel, for its proclamation and teaching. Similarly, birth of the spirit is the beginning of a new character, but complemented by maturity in the knowledge of the Word of God. Repentance and conversion work primarily in the area of feelings and emotions - consecration and spiritual birth in the area of developing in-depth knowledge of the Bible (1 Cor. 14:20; Eph. 4:13; Col. 1:28; details can be found in the lecture ).

In the case of the elect, anointing the doorposts with the lamb's blood has a double meaning. Blood is a sign of sacrifice. For those who are not elect, this is a body sacrifice for avoiding sin and doing good. In the case of our Lord, it was a sacrifice for the service of justice, but no longer a sacrifice in the fight against sin in the body that our Lord did not have (Heb. 7:26). In the case of the repentant elect, these two meanings meet - baptism in the spirit is not only a call to holiness in character, but also a sacrifice of one's time, strength and resources for teaching the Gospel. It seems appropriate to refer to the words of Jesus Christ, who tells the Jews: "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you" (Jn. 6:53 OGIB). This is a statement that says a lot in the context of Easter, if we bear in mind the meaning of blood indicated above.

First of all, we see that receiving the gift of life ultimately requires participation in the blood of Jesus Christ, i.e. it requires the same relationship to the truth that the Lord manifested - the same kind of sacrifice. For him, teaching about God was the content of life - just like with his followers. Thorough learning and practicing God's Word is necessary to develop a mature character in the image of the Lord Jesus. He himself clearly declares that eternal life is the fruit of knowing God and, through knowing, also doing (John 15:1-10, 17:3). The apostle Paul repeatedly emphasizes this in his letters (Eph. 1:16-18, 3:14-19; Phil. 1:9-11; Col. 1:9-12). Disregarding the importance of knowing the Word of God is a fundamental mistake that a Christian can make - without knowing it, no heart impulse will be effective because the Lord will not recognize his truth in our actions (Mt. 7:21-23).

The body and blood of the lamb used on behalf of the firstborn of Israel

The firstborn are a special group of people for whom improper celebration of the Passover is subject to the sanction of loss of life. This has its special meaning in the antitype. The elect who repent before God in the name of Jesus Christ receive God's love of truth. Subjected to her influence, they are invited to lay down their lives as a sacrifice for the Word of God, and through this sacrifice grow to maturity in accordance with Christ (Eph. 4:11-16). In this sense, the agape love is the cause of birth of the spirit in those who have received it. The Scripture presents them as newborn infants who, at the beginning of their sacrifice, require the milk of basic teaching to develop later by taking in 'hard food' (Heb. 5:11-14; 1 Pet. 2:1,2). And this applies to all the elect who take part in the supper.

However, not everyone works at the same pace. Some new creatures never fully take up their sacrifice and remain 'babes' in the mental sense. On the one hand, they do not achieve the purpose of their calling, which is the glory of God's nature (1 Pt. 1:3,4); on the other hand, because their understanding of this goal is also small, their responsibility is lesser. Their judgment covers teaching, trial and discipline, but does not include the fourth element: death and life sentence. The apostle Paul writes about this in Heb. 6:4-6 and Heb. 10:26,27. For a new creature to be sentenced to death for infidelity, it must reach a certain level of awareness of the truth. A sin committed unconsciously does not qualify for such final judgments as the penalty of losing life for eternity (cf. Acts 3:17-19). Therefore, the non-firstborn elect represent those born of the spirit who have not developed to the full extent qualifying for final judgement.

However, there is also a group of those of the Lord's people who make their sacrifices faithfully and grow up to the 'perfect man'. It will be for them the source of the desired reward in glory with the Lord, but it is also the source of this additional responsibility, which "infants" do not have. And this is not a matter of God's vengeful judgment, but of the state in which infidel new creatures bring themselves. In the type, the firstborn was punished with death if there was no blood on the door; in the antitype, the elect who have reached the proper level of God's knowledge must also continue in their sacrifice. Its omission will mean death, and the second death will be eternal (Heb. 10:10; Rev. 20:14). In this state, the apostle Paul says that repentance is not possible (Heb. 6:6). Judas is a clear example of this. After turning Jesus in, he feels reproach to such an extent that he gives away money and goes to hang himself (Mt. 27:3-5). Despite such dramatic experiences, the Bible does not use metanoia, which describes repentance leading to a change of mind. Bible translations sometimes say that he "felt remorse," but it wasn't remorse that could bring him back to God. This is the case with the firstborn, on whose door there is no blood of the Lamb - the renewal of their hearts to repentance will not be possible and on the night of leaving Egypt of this world an angel of death will reach them.

When should the Lord's Supper be celebrated?

The last aspect related to the Lord's Supper, which will be discussed in this lecture, is the time and frequency of its celebration. This is a topic that should raise the least controversy because a clear indication is provided by a typical representation of the supper, i.e. the paschal supper. A typical lamb was killed once a year, on the 14th day of Nisan after sunset, and served to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt for the next generations of Israel. Our Lord sets up his feast exactly during the celebration of the type, which is a clear indication that the time and frequency of eating our antitypical paschal supper does not change and remains the same as in the type: Nisan 14 after sunset. The argument for such a solution is also the fact that the basic meaning of the supper is the same as in the case of Passover. Passover was a commemoration of the departure from Egypt, our supper commemorates the death of the Lord, of which he clearly says: "this do ye in remembrance of me" (1 Cor. 11:24,25 OGIB). The reminder of the Easter lamb sacrifice took place once a year; Therefore, it seems logical to use the annual interval also to remind our Lamb's sacrifice.

There is really no reason in the New Testament to celebrate the Lord's Supper at a different time or frequency than the pattern shown in the Law. Proponents of the view that one should take bread and wine often, refer to the phrase "as oft as" - "this do ye, as oft as ye drink [it], in remembrance of me"(1 Cor. 11:25,26 OGIB). 'As oft as' does not mean "as often as you like"; this is not a word that tells you how often, but it points to the relationship between regularly repeated facts. So, as often as there is one event, it is automatically accompanied by another. The sentence "as oft as it's about to rain, birds fly low" does not indicate that it rains often, but informs that the incoming rainfall is always signaled by the behavior of the birds. And this is how you must understand the Lord's words: as often as we celebrate the supper, we commemorate his death in this way.

Daily supper consumption is the result of a transubstantiation error. For if we eat in this way the mystical Body of Christ, if - as the Catechism of the Catholic Church says - in this way "the soul is filled with grace and receives the deposit of future glory" (1323), we should actually do it often. Meanwhile, the Lord's consecrated people enter into a covenant relationship with God at the time of repentance and remain in it as long as they avoid sin and accept the doctrine of justice expressed by our Lord. Eating physical food doesn't change anything. As for Israelite, blood was a sign of eating the lamb, so for us wine is a sign of participation in sacrifice, and thus also of eating our lamb. This sense of the supper must be kept in mind so that its consumption is dignified and conscious and that our participation in Christ is real.

Keywords: the Lord's Supper
Bible translations used in the lecture:
OGIB - Online Greek Interlinear Bible